Syntactic sugar for terms

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Dyna provides a couple of special notations for terms. These notations are merely syntactic sugar intended to improve readability. They are borrowed from Prolog.

List syntax

Dyna offers a convenient list syntax. Lists written in the sugared form on the left are syntactically expanded by the compiler into the ordinary terms on the right. (Note: cons and nil are the traditional LISP names for these list-building operators.)

[one, 2, three]        ==>  cons(one, cons(2, cons(three, nil))
["Miller", "Carl"]     ==>  cons("Miller", cons("Carl", nil))
[singleton(1)]         ==>  cons(singleton(1), nil)
[]                     ==>  nil
[first | Rest]         ==>  cons(first, Rest)
[first, second | Rest] ==>  cons(first, cons(second, Rest))

The last two examples use Prolog's vertical bar syntax. Note that their expansions do not mention nil. The variable Rest would typically be a list itself. Then [first | Rest] is a new list with first added to the front.

Type declarations for lists

If your program uses list syntax, then it implicitly uses cons and nil. So you might wish to give them precise type declarations, for example:

:- structure(cons(int i, list rest)).    % specifically a list of ints
:- structure(nil).

However, if you omit declarations for cons or nil, then declaration inference will kick in as usual, and infer declarations that are consistent with your actual usage.

Operators

If you have a term called span, like here:

constit(X, span(I, J)) max= word(Y, span(I, J)) + rewrites(X, Y).

it can be convenient to declare a special operator like in Prolog:

:- operator(400, yfx, "..").
:- cname("..", "span").

Then you can use .. instead of span throughout your dyna program:

constit(X, I..J) max= word(Y, I .. J) + rewrites(X, Y).

Such operators can make program code nicer. But do not overuse them since they currently affect the performance of your program. Extensive use in bigger dyna programs can also make the code harder to understand.

Does this belong to list of declarations? --Markus 09:40, 4 Apr 2005 (EDT)

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